Today, the OED is the definitive authority on the meaning, pronunciation and history of over ...read more, On February 1, 1917, the lethal threat of the German U-boat submarine raises its head again, as Germany returns to the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare it had previously suspended in response to pressure from the United States and other neutral countries. Texas left the United States on Feb. 1, 1861, when Gov. (For a narrative of this period, click here.) By 2013, Netflix had already fundamentally changed the way Americans consumed movies and television. Texas secedes On February 1, 1861, Texas becomes the seventh state to secede from the Union when a state convention votes 166 to 8 in favor of the measure. Pres. All of those who left the Union were slave owning states. However, events swayed many Texans to the secessionist cause. The service offered unlimited DVD rentals—and, starting in 2007, direct streaming of many of its titles—for a flat monthly fee, a wildly popular model that almost single-handedly ...read more, Antislavery crusader and Civil War veteran Harriet Tubman becomes the first African American woman to appear on a U.S. postage stamp, the first in the Post Office's Black Heritage Series. This started as a result of Abraham Lincoln being elected president. Only eleven others cast as much as 40 percent of their vote against. Although they did not initially join to a Confederate Union composed of other southern states which seceded, mutual protection demanded that a confederation be formed, and Texas became a part on March 22. 1861. oath of allegiance to Confederacy. The Texans who voted to … Tubman's appearance on stamps was emblematic both of the progress made in recognizing ...read more, A singular event occurred during the halftime show of the Super Bowl on February 1, 2004. Wilcox and his wife, Daeida, had moved to Southern California four years earlier from Topeka, Kansas, where Harvey had made his fortune in real estate. The the rapid rise of the Republican Party also unnerved many. formed the Confederate States of America and drew up a constitution. 2. Like other cotton-growing and slaveholding states, Texas seceded from the Union in early 1861 and joined the Confederate States of America. [Ratified Feb. 23, 1861 by a vote of 46,153 for and 14,747 against] | Go to Texas' Declaration of Causes Page | Return to the Secession Page | In October 1861, Breckinridge sent a … As you know, Texas left the country once — in 1861, when it joined the Confederate States of America. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/texas-secedes. On 1 February 1861, a popular referendum voted to secede, making Texas the seventh and last state of the Lower South to do so. The U.S. state of Texas declared its secession from the United States of America on February 1, 1861, and joined the Confederate States on March 2, 1861, after it replaced its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. East Texas Historical Journal Volume 11 Issue 2 Article 6 10-1973 The Referendum in Texas on the Ordinance of Secession, February 23, 1861: The Vote Joe T. Timmons Follow this and additional works at: https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/ethj Part of the United States History Commons Tell us how this article helped you. On February 1, 1861, delegates of the state of Texas resolved to secede from the federal Union of the United States of America. occurred on February 23, 1861. © 2021 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Unrestricted ...read more, Richard M. Nixon announces his candidacy for the presidency. occurred on February 23, 1861. The remaining slave states—Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri—never mustered the necessary majority for secession. See, however, the source notes to … As with those of other states, the Declaration of Secession was not recognized by the US government at Washington, DC. oath of allegiance to Confederacy. SEC. Texas was to play a prominent role in the Confederacy. Texas was unique among the seceding states because of its ambivalence toward secession. Despite the local color and the southwestern nature of the state, Texas … The Texans who voted to leave the Union did so over the objections of their governor, Sam Houston. Sign up now to learn about This Day in History straight from your inbox. Feb. 1 – The Secession Convention approves an ordinance withdrawing Texas from Union because "the power of the Federal Government is sought to be made a weapon with which to strike down the interests and prosperity of the people of Texas and her Sister slaveholding States"; the action is ratified by the voters on Feb. 23 in a referendum vote. It was fully readmitted into the Union following the Civil War in 1870. Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana followed in January, and Texas voted to secede on February 1, 1861—still more than a month before Lincoln was actually inaugurated. Many had expected all of the slave-owning states to secede but the states of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri, where slavery was legal did not. A state convention in Austin voted 166-8 in favor of secession. It had seemed that his election in 1859 indicated that Texas was not going to leave the Union. They drafted and signed an Ordinance of Secession, which “repealed and annulled” the Texas annexation laws of 1845. After the Texas voters ratified secession from the Union on February 23, 1861, the Secession Convention reconvened. Page 3. byMr.ChiltonandadoptedMarch16,1861. This led to the calling of a convention that was to decide the future of Texas. It was fully readmitted into the Union following the Civil War in 1870. Texas’ Secession from the Union Leading up to Texas’ secession in 1861, there was lots of fighting over slavery between the north and south. The raid by John Brown on Harper’s Ferry had outraged many in Texas and it caused many to believe that there could be an imminent salve revolt. Co., 1912. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Adopted in Convention, at Austin City, the first day of February, A.D. 1861. John Hemphill: Did not appear on March 4, 1861, for the 38th Congress; expelled on July 11, 1861; represented the state of Texas in the Congress of the Confederate States of America until his death. By a vote of 44,317 to 13,020, Texans ratified secession on February 23, 1861. During the subsequent American Civil War, Texas was most useful for supplying soldiers for Confederate forces and in the cavalry. Which did happen. This and the genuine belief that the state’s rights were being threatened by the Federal government persuaded many that they had no option but to secede. The convention voted overwhelmingly for secession, much to the regret of Sam Houston. For discussion as well as a transcription, see Joe T. Timmons, "The Referendum in Texas on the Ordinance of Secession, February 23, 1861: The Vote," 11.2 East Texas Historical Journal 12, 15f. On December 20, 1860, a special convention called in South Carolina unanimously passed an ordinance of secession. Texas has left the union once before. In January 1861, sixteen years after Texas joined the United States, the Secession Convention met in Austin and, on February 1, adopted an Ordinance of Secession and a Declaration of Causes on February 2. Breckinridge hoped secession could be stopped, but once secession became a reality, he delivered one of his final speeches and returned to Kentucky. Texas Library and Historical Commission, the State Library. Edited from the original in the department of state by Ernest William Winkler, State Librarian. Ninety-two of 122 counties responded, and on Jan. 28, 1861, the meeting convened. A new debate over Texas secession is far from the first. His previous opera, Manon Lascaut, had made his name in the world of Italian opera, and, more important, it had earned him a ...read more, In the Royal Exchange Building on New York City’s Broad Street, the Supreme Court of the United States meets for the first time, with Chief Justice John Jay of New York presiding. DECLARATION OF CAUSES: February 2, 1861 A declaration of the causes which impel the State of Texas to secede from the Federal Union. After the Civil War and Reconstruction of the 1860s, Texas was fully re-admitted into the Union in 1870. The convention met on January 28, 1861. Originally published serially in … Texas. The Texans wanted to keep slavery legal in their state. Some Texan military units fought in the Civil War east of the Mississippi River, but Texas was more useful for supplying soldiers and horses for the Confederat… ANALYSIS: Could Texas afford to #Texit A map from Texas Almanac shows most counties voted to leave the Union in 1861, including Harris, Bexar, … A staunch Unionist, Houston’s election in 1859 as governor seemed to indicate that Texas did not share the rising secessionist sentiments of the other Southern states. Journals of the Secession Convention, 1861. The south was pro-slavery while the north had no tolerance for slavery. For the last ten years we have had numerous and serious causes of complaint against our non-slave-holding confederate States with reference to the subject of African slavery. Done by the people of the State of Texas, in convention assembled, at Austin, this 1st day of February, A.D. 1861. Texas secedes from the Union, Feb. 1, 1861 On this day in 1861, Texas became the seventh state to secede from the Union. By laying the facts out in such detail, Chase presents myriad opportunities for future jurists and states to distinguish between future secession attempts and that of Texas in 1861. Journal of the Secession Convention of Texas 1861. Houston refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy and was replaced in March 1861 by his lieutenant governor. Montgomery Convention. Four more states—Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas—waited until the formal start of the Civil War, with the April 1861 firing on Fort Sumter at Charleston, South Carolina, before deciding to leave the Union. (Texas Secession, 1) On February 23, 1861, Texas went to the polls and voted for or against secession. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. Walter L. Buenger, Secession and the Union in Texas (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984). This was not unexpected and for some time the Texans had been unhappy with the direction of the Union. Only eight delegates voted against secession, while 166 supported it. An election was called for Feb. 23, 1861, and the ensuing campaign was marked by intolerance and violence. Montgomery Convention. January 8, 1861: Elections for delegates to state convention to consider secession. Since then, there’s been no shortage in another secession debate. Recommended Citation No secession ball will mark the day. Texas Library and Historical Commission, the State Library. Texas left the United States on Feb. 1, 1861, when Gov. Confederate States of America. Houston grumbled that Texans were “stilling the voice of reason,” and he predicted an “ignoble defeat” for the South. Yet for all its uniqueness the story of the secession of Texas has broad implications for the secession movement in general. The state decided to leave the Union after a state convention voted 166 to 8 to secede. ... 1861, and, unless rejected by a majoriity of the votes cast, shall take effect and be in force on and after the 2nd day of March, A. D. 1861. As the nation expanded west, the two sections repeatedly clashed. After the Civil War and Reconstruction, Texas was fully readmitted into the Union in … A former Methodist minister, Taylor converted to Mormonism in 1836, not long after Joseph Smith ...read more, On February 1, 1887, Harvey Wilcox officially registers Hollywood with the Los Angeles County recorder’s office. Sam Houston one of the heroes of Texas War against Mexico cautioned against secession. This document from February 1, 1861, dissolved the union between the state of Texas and the United States of America. On January 9, 1861, Mississippi became the second state to secede. The Texans wanted to keep slavery legal in their state. Seven states, including Texas, seceded before Lincoln even took office in March 1861. •Theproclamation of Governor Houston, convening the legislature in extrasession onJanuary 21, 1861, is dated December 17, 1860. January 30, 1861 Texas Secession Referendum, 1861 U.S. House Results: Delaware, 1789 About the Data. A state convention in Austin voted 166-8 in favor of secession. Since then, there’s been no shortage in another secession debate. Houston was a committed Unionists. Virginia. Users of social networks are actively discussing the Republican's statement, comparing this idea with the secession of the southern states from the United States during the Civil War. Secession has been a part of Texas history for longer than the state has existed. Instead, the legislature supported the Secession Convention. Fellow Citizens: The undersigned are a committee of the Convention, to prepare a brief exposition of its proceedings, with reasons therefor, as an address to the people, for general information. All Rights Reserved. ... joining with the Confederacy in 1861. Texas secession. A new debate over Texas secession is far from the first. Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana followed in January, and Texas voted to secede on February 1, 1861—still more than a month before Lincoln was actually inaugurated. The murder marked Bundy’s entry into the ranks of serial killers as he had recently attacked his first victim, Sharon Clarke, in her Seattle home. 1 of 21 In 1861, the brown counties voted to remain in the Union, the blue counties voted to leave the Union while the yellow counties had no returns. Sam Houston refused to swear allegiance to the Confederate States of America. Printed document of the State of Texas' Declaration of Secession from the United States of America. To dissolve the union between the State of Texas and the other States, united under the compact styled "The Constitution of the United States of America." His election caused a stampede for secession across the South. Robin E. Baker and Dale Baum, "The Texas Voter and the Crisis of the Union, 1859–1861," Journal of Southern History 53 (August 1987). There have been groups, such as the Texas Nationalists Movement, that have supported secession. Texas did attempt to secede in late January and early February 1861. A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal Union. He warned that the Northern states would defeat the secessionist states. Seven states—South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas—left the Union before Lincoln took office. Indeed the sudden shift in Texan public opinion had shocked many observers. Sam Houston. Texas declared its secession from the Union on February 1, 1861, and joined the Confederate States on March 2, 1861, after it had replaced its governor, Sam Houston, who had refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. The slave owners were a powerful faction in the state. Abraham Lincoln’s election was greeted with anger in Texas. The Texans had only joined the Union only a few years before. Many Texans died on the battlefields of the Civil War. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! ... 1861, and, unless rejected by a majoriity of the votes cast, shall take effect and be in force on and after the 2nd day of March, A. D. 1861. February 1, 1884: The first portion, or fascicle, of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), considered the most comprehensive and accurate dictionary of the English language, is published. As part of that duty they amended the Constitution of 1845. Of the 122 counties casting votes only eighteen cast majorities against secession. The performance was airing live all ...read more, By the time the first of his three career-defining operas had its premiere, Giacomo Puccini was no longer living a life of impoverished artistic struggle. In total seven states South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas left the Union before the inauguration of Lincoln. They bought 160 ...read more, On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia breaks up while entering the atmosphere over Texas, killing all seven crew members on board. He only called it after intense pressure. A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal Union. Houston was obliged to call the convention against his will. The Columbia‘s 28th space mission, designated STS-107, was originally scheduled to launch on January 11, 2001, but was delayed numerous ...read more, On February 1, 1974, University of Washington student Lynda Ann Healy disappears from her apartment and is killed by Ted Bundy. Some wanted to restore the Republic of Texas, but an identity with the Confederacy was embraced. Four days later, on February 1, its members voted by a margin of 166 to 8 to secede. Sam Houston refused to swear allegiance to the Confederate States of America. This action prompted Senator Jefferson Davis to address the Senate on January 10, imploring his colleagues to allow for peaceful secession of the Southern states. He did so reluctantly in January 1861, and sat in silence on February 1 as the convention voted overwhelmingly in favor of secession. 7 The majority of the anti-secession votes were from counties with large German populations and counties in north Texas, which was settled extensively by emigrants from the north and included populations with few slaveholders. John Brown’s raid on the federal armory at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia), in October 1859 had raised the specter of a major slave insurrection, and the ascendant Republican Party made many Texans uneasy about continuing in the Union. We were the 7th state to do so. After Abraham Lincoln’s election to the presidency in November 1860, pressure mounted on Houston to call a convention so that Texas could consider secession. The U.S. state of Texas declared its secession from the United States on February 1, 1861, and joined the Confederate States of America on March 2, 1861, replacing its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. The last time anything like this happened was in 1860, when the election of Abraham Lincoln led almost immediately to declarations of secession by seven states between Dec. 20, 1860 and Feb. 1, 1861. Houston later refused to take an oath of allegiance to the new Confederacy. ADDRESS TO THE PEOPLE OF TEXAS: AUSTIN, March 30th, 1861. In January 1861, sixteen years after Texas joined the United States, the Secession Convention met in Austin and, on February 1, adopted an Ordinance of Secession and a Declaration of Causes on February 2. Most observers had written off Nixon’s political career eight years earlier, when he had lost to John F. Kennedy in the 1960 election. Done by the people of the State of Texas, in convention assembled, at Austin, this 1st day of February, A.D. 1861. Confederate States of America. January 21, 1861: The state legislature convenes in Austin at the request of Gov. We were the 7th state to do so. The Texans decision was criticized by their governor. Anna Irene Sandbo, "The First Session of the Secession Convention of Texas," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 18 (October 1914). Secession Documents: Texas July 19, 2018 / Kathleen Thompson Texas was the seventh state to secede on February 1, 1861, the last of the first phase of secession and the final of the seven states to formally declare the Confederacy on February 8, 1861. Texas Ordinance of Secession (1861) related portals: Texas, Confederate States of America. Secession. The document contains the reasons for secession laid out by delegates of the people of Texas in Convention, and includes the names of those delegates, with … Texas Ordinance of Secession (1861) related portals: Texas, Confederate States of America. Texas was the last of a raft of states to secede from the Union. Sam Houston was proved right and Texas and the other secessionist states were defeated and left devastated. On July 6, 1942, the Japanese landed on Guadalcanal Island, part of the Solomon Islands chain, and began constructing an ...read more. Originally published serially in newspapers. On February 1, 1861, Texas becomes the seventh state to secede from the Union when a state convention votes 166 to 8 in favor of the measure. The people of Georgia having dissolved their political connection with the Government of the United States of America, present to their confederates and the world the causes which have led to the separation. Later four more states seceded after the exchange of fire at Fort Sumter in April 1861. Houston refused to do this so his office of Governor was declared vacant. Pressure to call a convention to consider secession began in October 1860, when it became apparent that Abraham Lincoln would be elected to the presidency. After the Texas voters ratified secession from the Union on February 23, 1861, the Secession Convention reconvened. In late January and early February 1861 a convention of the people of Texas met in Austin and voted to secede from the Union. He argued that their resources were simply too great and that Texas would be devastated. He has led the Texans to their great victory over the Mexicans at the Battle of San Jacinto. [from E.W. This ordinance shall be submitted to the people of Texas for their ratification or rejection, by the qualified voters, on the 23rd day of February, 1861, and unless rejected by a majority of the votes cast, shall take effect and be in force on and after the 2d day of March, A.D. 1861. The screenwriter, ...read more, John Taylor, the president of the Mormon Church, goes “underground” to avoid arrest and continue resisting federal demands for reforms within the community of Latter-day Saints. Secession has been a part of Texas history for longer than the state has existed. By ...read more, On February 1, Japanese forces on Guadalcanal Island, defeated by Marines, start to withdraw after the Japanese emperor finally gives them permission. Edited from the original in the department of state by Ernest William Winkler, State Librarian. … There have been groups, such as the Texas Nationalists Movement, that have supported secession. The shah and his family had fled the country two weeks before, and jubilant Iranian revolutionaries were eager to establish a fundamentalist Islamic government under Khomeini’s ...read more. The Ordinance of Secession was subsequently approved by popular vote in a statewide election. Texas, which became a state in 1845, actually seceded in 1861 when it joined the Confederate States of America. Only eight delegates voted against secession, while 166 supported it. Previously, Texas had been a Republic after it had won its independence from Mexico. On this day in 1861, Texas became the seventh state to secede from the Union. On this day in 1861,  the state of Texas becomes the seventh state to leave the Union. Secession, as it applies to the outbreak of the American Civil War, comprises the series of events that began on December 20, 1860, and extended through June 8 … Texas held a convention in Austin and voted to secede from the Union. These states never did manage to secure a majority to secede from the Union. The document contains the reasons for secession laid out by delegates of the people of Texas in Convention, and includes the names of those delegates, with O. M. Roberts, President, at the top of the list. A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal Union. On this day in 1861, the state of Texas becomes the seventh state to leave the Union. Texas, which became a state in 1845, actually seceded in 1861 when it joined the Confederate States of America. A state convention in 1861 voted 166 to 8 in favor of secession — a measure that was then ratified by a popular vote, making Texas the seventh state to secede … Printed document of the State of Texas' Declaration of Secession from the United States of America. In November 1860, Abraham Lincoln won the presidency with a promise to stop the expansion of slavery into the western territories. While performing a duet with Janet Jackson, Justin Timberlake briefly exposed one of her breasts in what was later described as a "wardrobe malfunction." ... joining with the Confederacy in 1861. The document contains the reasons for secession laid out by delegates of the people of Texas in Convention, and includes the names of those delegates, with … The state decided to leave the Union after a state convention voted 166 to 8 to secede. Texas’ move completed the first round of secession. After the Civil War and Reconstruction of the 1860s, Texas was fully re-admitted into the Union in 1870. A state convention in 1861 voted 166 to 8 in favor of secession — a measure that was then ratified by a popular vote, making Texas the seventh state to secede from the Union. Sam Houston called this to declare the TX Secession Convention illegal. James M. Mason: Withdrew on March 28, 1861; expelled on July 11, 1861; appointed commissioner of the Confederacy to Great Britain and France. Convention delegates believed it their duty to direct the transition of Texas from a state in the United States to one of the Confederate States of America. On February 23, 1861, Texas went to the polls and voted for or against secession. The results for the state as a whole were 46,153 for and 14,747 against. formed the Confederate States of America and drew up a constitution. On January 21 five senators from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi, led by Davis, bade farewell to the Senate Some 76 … Two years after losing to Kennedy, Nixon ran for governor of California and lost in ...read more, The Misfits, a flawed but moving meditation on the vanishing spirit of western independence, opens in theaters. But it was far from unanimous; 18 counties cast a majority against secession and 11others cast as much as 40 percent against. An election was called for Feb. 23, 1861, and the ensuing campaign was marked by intolerance and violence. Journal of the Secession Convention of Texas 1861. The director, John Huston, was one of the most talented in Hollywood. [ratified by a vote of 46,153 to 14,747 on February 23, 1861] This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923. Printed document of the State of Texas' Declaration of Secession from the United States of America. In doing this it declared that all current officeholders must swear a loyalty oath to the Confederacy. Austin] : Austin Print. the secession of the state became official The Secession Convention reassembled on March 5, declared Texas independent, took further steps to join it to the Confederacy, and reorganized the state's government. The data for most pre-1825 elections is drawn from the American Antiquarian Society’s Lampi Collection of American Electoral Returns, 1788-1825, used under CC0 1.0. The Misfits had all the right ingredients to become a truly great western. Co., 1912. He was later replaced in March 1861 by the lieutenant governor. James Buchanan denied the right of secession, but he also denied the right of the federal government to use force against the seceded states. The entire kind of American political impulse is to separate, to secede," said Kreitner, noting that plenty of people dismissed the South's threats of an independent Confederacy as a … The results for the state as a whole were 46,153 for and 14,747 against. Pres. Convention delegates believed it their duty to direct the transition of Texas from a state in the United States to one of the Confederate States of America. This was not unexpected and for some time the Texans had been unhappy with the direction of the Union. Slavery had been around since the south was first settled on and southerners meant to keep it … Secession Documents: Texas July 19, 2018 / Kathleen Thompson Texas was the seventh state to secede on February 1, 1861, the last of the first phase of secession and the final of the seven states to formally declare the Confederacy on February 8, 1861. But 150 years ago today, on Feb. 1, 1861, a state convention voted overwhelmingly to secede from the Union, against the … Austin] : Austin Print. Texas secession. After becoming a state in 1845, the Lone Star State seceded from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America in 1861. Winkler, ed., *Journal of the Secession Convention of Texas*, pp61-66.] Ninety-two of 122 counties responded, and on Jan. 28, 1861, the meeting convened. The U.S. Supreme Court was established by Article Three of the U.S. Constitution, which took effect ...read more, On February 1, 1979, the Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran in triumph after 15 years of exile. January 28, 1861: Approval by the legislature of a joint resolution authorizing a state convention to act for the people of Texas on the secession matter. Secession was not recognized by the US government at Washington, DC a convention in Austin and voted to texas secession 1861... An election was called for Feb. 23, 1861, when Gov s been no in! The battlefields of the secession convention of Texas director, John Huston, was one of the Republican Party unnerved... Texas seceded from the United States of America was not unexpected and for some time Texans! Cast as much as 40 percent of their vote against and accurate been groups such. Groups, such as the Texas Nationalists Movement, that have supported secession Ninety-two of 122 counties,... 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Straight from your inbox state as a result of Abraham Lincoln ’ s election called... Unique among the seceding States because of its ambivalence toward secession seceding States because its. Governor Houston, convening the legislature in extrasession onJanuary 21, 1861, Texas went to the States... Few years before •theproclamation of governor was declared vacant, A.D. 1861 would be devastated, actually seceded in,... Votes only eighteen cast majorities against secession and violence secession and 11others cast as much as percent. Republican Party also unnerved many did manage to secure a majority to secede from the Union there! Won the presidency, secession and 11others cast as much as 40 percent against met Austin... Or against secession had only joined the Union after a state convention voted 166 to 8 secede! To stop the expansion of slavery into the western territories drafted and an! 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