[23] Carl Friedrich Zelter had been head of the Sing-Akademie since 1800. Recitative for bass, tenor, alto and soprano, with Chorus II singing Mein Jesu, gute Nacht!. Large choruses, in addition to the instrumentists indicated for Choir I and II, would have been impossible, so also here there is an indication that each part (including those of strings and singers) would have a limited number of performers, where, for the choruses, the numbers indicated by Bach in his 1730 request would appear to be (more than?) The St. Matthew Passion can be broken down roughly into nine scenes: an introduction, the anointing in Bethany, the Last Supper, Jesus and the apostles in the garden of Gethsemane, Judas’ betrayal, the trial and interrogation of Jesus, Judas in the Temple, the scourging and crucifixion of Jesus, and the descent from the cross and burial. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 1, Chorus I/II: "Kommt, Ihr Töchter, Helft Mir Klagen"", "St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244: No. 17 has three flats (E-flat major), No. The music of the cantata consisted largely of music adapted from the St Matthew Passion. In this version both choirs have SATB soloists and chorus, and a string section and continuo consisting of at least violins I and II, viola, gamba and organ. 55) Simon of Cyrene is forced to carry the cross. St. Matthew Passion is an oratorio, which is a musical drama. Stream songs including "St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244: No. [15] The opening chorus, "Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen" is also notable for the use of chorale cantus firmus, in which the soprano in ripieno crowns a colossal buildup of polyphonic and harmonic tension, singing a verse of "O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig". In the 1727/1729 version, this part is concluded by a four-part setting of verse 6 of the Chorale "Meinen Jesum laß ich nicht (Jesum laß ich nicht von mir)". Omissions? The St Matthew Passion is written in two parts, between which the sermon intervened in olden times. [10], Some parts were adjusted for a new performance on Good Friday 23 March 1742. "Weissage uns, Christe") and sometimes sing together ("Herr, wir haben gedacht"). Zelter was reluctant but eventually gave his approval; that of the Singakademie board followed.[29]. Bach created particularly distinctive accompagnato recitatives in this work: they are accompanied not by continuo alone, but also by the entire string section of the first orchestra using long, sustained notes and "highlighting" certain words, thus creating an effect often referred to as Jesus's "halo". There had already been a long history of Passion music – that is musical settings telling the story of the final, short period in the life of Jesus. ), are sung without this "halo". This monumental St Matthew Passion is hailed as the greatest setting of the Passion story in western music, but surprisingly it was not until almost 100 years after its premiere that Bach’s music got the recognition it deserved. After 16 measures of instrumental introduction in 128 time, driven by an ostinato rhythm in the basses, Chorus I intones Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen, until in measure 26 they sing Sehet (Hark!) Their first performance was effectively publicized in six consecutive issues of the Berliner Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, founded and edited by Adolf Bernhard Marx. The St. John, and especially the St. Matthew Passion, have been performed and recorded innumerable times. In St. M… Bach revised the piece considerably several times, but the final performance during his lifetime, in 1749, was similar in form to the first version. The presenter and explicator was Leonard Bernstein, who introduced the St Matthew Passion as "that glorious work that started me off on my own private passion for Bach."[33]. The St. Matthew Passion (German: Matthäuspassion) is a musical composition written by Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach then revised it again between 1743 and 1746. — What? 7) has Judas Iscariot negotiating the price for handing Jesus over. 1727 sacred oratorio by Johann Sebastian Bach, Versions and contemporaneous performances, First version (BWV 244.1, previously 244b), Funeral cantata for Köthen (BWV 1143, previously 244a), Passion performances in the St. Thomas Church, Later revisions and performances (BWV 244.2, previously 244), Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen, Without text (played by organ only) in older versions of the Passion, Klagt, Kinder, klagt es aller Welt, BWV 244a, St Matthew Passion structure § Numbering of the movements, List of chorale harmonisations by Johann Sebastian Bach § BWV 244–244b, Learn how and when to remove this template message. Choral movements come in two additional formats (apart from the turba and dialogue with soloist roles already mentioned above): Cornerstone choral movements, or chorale fantasias: these are the extended movements, typically used to open or close both parts of the oratorio. The St. Matthew Passion(German: Matthäuspassion) is a musical composition written by Johann Sebastian Bach. He dies. Helen Johnston (a student at Queen's College, London) translated the libretto of the Passion, and Bennett conducted the first English performance at the Hanover Square Rooms London on 6 April 1854 (the same year that it appeared in print by the Old Bach Society (Alte Bach-Gesellschaft). Bach finalized his autograph score in 1743–1746; however, this undertaking was not tied to any new performance.[10]. St. Matthew describes the tearing of the Temple curtain and an earthquake – set to music by Bach. 3–479, Autograph score in the Berlin State Library (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin), International Music Score Library Project, Translation to many languages, commentary, musical examples, list of recordings, The Passion according to Saint Matthew BWV 244, Masses, magnificat, passions and oratorios, List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=St_Matthew_Passion&oldid=998536685, Passions and oratorios by Johann Sebastian Bach, Articles needing additional references from April 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2015, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz work identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. This was sung only in 1742 and 1743–1746 and had been played on the organ before. Upon Jesus' declaration that one of the twelve will betray him in 9d, they ask him "Lord, is it I?" For practical reasons the continuo organ is often shared and played with both orchestras. In the revision of 1743–1746, it is also these words (the Vox Christi) that receive a sustained continuo part. [28] Around December 1828 – January 1829 Devrient persuaded Felix that the two of them should approach Zelter to get the Sing-Akademie to support their project. His principal contributor was Christian Friedrich Henrici, a poet who wrote under the name of Picander and also supplied the text for Bach’s secular Peasant Cantata (1742). 26) that he is betrayed by Judas' kiss and arrested. Where he cites Psalm 22, "Eli, Eli, lama asabthani?" (This is because most religious music was performed in churches. This is the version (with some possible later adjustments) that is generally known as the St Matthew Passion, BWV 244. Throughout the work, there is more music for the four soloists—soprano, alto, tenor, and bass—than for the chorus. The oldest chorale Bach used in the St Matthew Passion dates from 1525. – meaning: Am I the one going to betray? Folkoperan’s St Matthew Passion looks back towards Bach’s original intentions at the same time as moving meaning forward to have relevance to contemporary secular society, as well as those with religious belief. The first two lines of the hymn are a rhetorical question: "My dearest Jesus, which crimes have you committed, that such dire judgement has been passed? Pilate interrogates Jesus (No. (My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? The St Matthew Passion is set for two choirs and two orchestras. [9], Bach revised the Passion by 1736, for a performance on Good Friday 30 March 1736. The dialogue with these questions is repeated, and then, from measure 30, Chorus I sings the text of the incipit again while in ripieno sopranos sing the first two lines of Nikolaus Decius' chorale "O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig" (O Lamb of God, innocent) as the cantus firmus. It is a several-hours-long musical drama that depicts, expands and comments on Chapters 26 and 27 from Matthew’s Gospel, starting with Jesus’s foretelling of the crucifixion and ending with Pilate’s placement of guards at the tomb. 58) Jesus and two others are crucified and mocked by the crowd. The words tell the story of Jesus’s death on the crossas told in chapters 26 and 27 of the Book of St Matthewin the Bible. [1][8], In Bach's time, St. Thomas Church had two organ lofts: the large organ loft that was used throughout the year for musicians performing in Sunday services, vespers, etc., and the small organ loft, situated at the opposite side of the former, that was used additionally in the grand services for Christmas and Easter. The opening chorus continues by taking up the questions and answers by Chorus I and II again, now adding: Sehet — Was? Part Two uses Matthew 26:57–75 and Matthew 27:1–66. ), followed by the question Wie? This is notable in "O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde groß", the conclusion of the first half – a movement which Bach also used as an opening chorus for the second version (1725) of his St John Passion (later – ca. "[30] (‘Passion’ is derived from the Latin verb ‘patior’ meaning ‘to suffer’ or ‘endure’, from which we also get ‘patience’ and ‘patient’.) The St. John Passion. While soprano and alto mourn (in duet, No. Often the chorus is called upon to present Bach’s new settings of existing chorales. 44 has two sharps (D major), No. 38) Peter is told three times that he belongs to Jesus and denies it three times – then the cock crows. The St. Matthew Passion is impressive even by Bach’s standards. Part I is closed by a four-part Chorale Fantasia (both choirs) on the chorale O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde groß (O mankind, mourn your great sins), recapitulating that Jesus was born of the Virgin to "become the intercessor". The St. Matthew Passion was performed several times during the composer’s life, and a copy of its original manuscript exists in Bach’s own handwriting. Every year for Good Friday Vespers, a Passion would be performed in one of Leipzig’s two principal (Lutheran) churches, St. Thomas and St. Nicholas. (How?) "), choir I reflecting: "Your grave and headstone shall, for the anxious conscience, be a comfortable pillow and the resting place for the soul. [citation needed] In all prior versions (1727/1729, 1736, and 1742), the continuo part was sustained in all recitatives. — to our guilt), after which Chorus I and II sing the last lines of Picander's text in separate blocks. Zelter had a supply of J. S. Bach scores and was an admirer of Bach's music but he was reluctant to undertake public performances. It is the longest and most elaborate of all works by this Baroque master and represents the culmination of his sacred music and, indeed, of Baroque sacred music as a whole. They vote to crucify Jesus, Pilate gives in, washing his hands claiming his innocence, and delivers Jesus to torture and crucifixion. The St Matthew Passion is now a mainstay of the repertoire, especially around the Easter period. 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